Home Economics How Has Treasury Market Liquidity Developed in 2023?

How Has Treasury Market Liquidity Developed in 2023?

0
How Has Treasury Market Liquidity Developed in 2023?

[ad_1]

In a 2022 put up, we confirmed how liquidity situations within the U.S. Treasury securities market had worsened as provide disruptions, excessive inflation, and geopolitical battle elevated uncertainty in regards to the anticipated path of rates of interest. On this put up, we revisit some generally used metrics to evaluate how market liquidity has developed since. We discover that liquidity worsened abruptly In March 2023 after the failures of Silicon Valley Financial institution and Signature Financial institution, however then shortly improved to ranges near these of the previous 12 months. As in 2022, liquidity in 2023 continues to carefully monitor the extent that might be anticipated by the trail of rate of interest volatility.

Significance of Treasury Market Liquidity

The U.S. Treasury securities market is the most important and most liquid authorities securities market on the earth, with greater than $25 trillion in marketable debt excellent (as of August 31, 2023). The securities are utilized by the Treasury Division to finance the U.S. authorities, by numerous monetary establishments to handle rate of interest threat and worth different monetary devices, and by the Federal Reserve in implementing financial coverage. Having a liquid market is vital for all of those functions and thus of concern to market members and policymakers alike.

Measuring Liquidity

Liquidity typically refers to the price of shortly changing an asset into money (or vice versa) and is measured in varied methods. We have a look at three generally used measures, estimated utilizing high-frequency information from the interdealer market: the bid-ask unfold, order e-book depth, and worth impression. The measures are estimated for probably the most just lately auctioned (on-the-run) two-, five-, and ten-year notes (the three most actively traded Treasury securities, as proven in this Liberty Avenue Economics put up), and are calculated for New York buying and selling hours (outlined as 7 a.m. to five p.m.).

Market Liquidity Worsened in March 2023

The bid-ask unfold—the distinction between the bottom ask worth and the best bid worth for a safety—is among the hottest liquidity measures. As proven within the chart beneath, bid-ask spreads widened abruptly after the failures of Silicon Valley Financial institution (March 10) and Signature Financial institution (March 13), suggesting lowered liquidity.  For the two-year notice, spreads exceeded these noticed in the course of the COVID-related disruptions of March 2020 (examined in this Liberty Avenue Economics put up). Spreads then narrowed over the following month or so to ranges near these of the previous 12 months however remained considerably elevated for the two-year notice.

Bid-Ask Spreads Widened in March 2023

Supply: Writer’s calculations, based mostly on information from BrokerTec.
Notes: The chart plots five-day transferring averages of common each day bid-ask spreads for the on-the-run two-, five-, and ten-year notes within the interdealer market from September 1, 2019 to September 30, 2023. Spreads are measured in 32nds of a degree, the place a degree equals one % of par.

The subsequent chart plots order e-book depth, measured as the typical amount of securities out there on the market or buy at the most effective bid and supply costs. This metric once more factors to comparatively poor liquidity in March 2023, because the out there depth declined precipitously. Depth within the five-year notice was at ranges commensurate with these of March 2020, whereas depth within the two-year notice was appreciably decrease—and depth within the ten-year notice appreciably larger—than the degrees of March 2020. Inside a few month, depth for all three notes was again to ranges much like these of the previous 12 months.

Order Guide Depth Plunged in March 2023

Supply: Writer’s calculations, based mostly on information from BrokerTec.
Notes: This chart plots five-day transferring averages of common each day depth for the on-the-run two-, five-, and ten-year notes within the interdealer market from September 1, 2019 to September 30, 2023. Information are for order e-book depth on the inside tier, averaged throughout the bid and supply sides. Depth is measured in tens of millions of U.S. {dollars} par and plotted on a logarithmic scale.

Measures of the worth impression of trades additionally recommend a notable deterioration of liquidity. The subsequent chart plots the estimated worth impression per $100 million in internet order stream (outlined as buyer-initiated buying and selling quantity much less seller-initiated buying and selling quantity). The next worth impression suggests lowered liquidity. Worth impression for the two-year notice rose sharply in March 2023 to a stage about twice as excessive as at its March 2020 peak, after which inside a month or so returned to ranges similar to these of the previous 12 months.  Worth impression for the five-and ten-year notes rose extra modestly in March.

Worth Impression Rose in March 2023

Supply: Writer’s calculations, based mostly on information from BrokerTec.
Notes: The chart plots five-day transferring averages of slope coefficients from each day regressions of one-minute worth modifications on one-minute internet order stream (buyer-initiated buying and selling quantity much less seller-initiated buying and selling quantity) for the on-the-run two-, five-, and ten-year notes within the interdealer market from September 1, 2019 to September 30, 2023. Worth impression is measured in 32nds of a degree per $100 million, the place a degree equals one % of par.

Volatility Spiked in March 2023

The failures of Silicon Valley Financial institution and Signature Financial institution elevated uncertainty in regards to the financial outlook and anticipated path of rates of interest. Rate of interest volatility elevated sharply consequently, as proven within the subsequent chart, with two-year notice volatility particularly reaching ranges greater than twice as excessive as in March 2020. Volatility causes market makers to widen their bid-ask spreads and put up much less depth at any given worth to handle the elevated threat of taking over positions, producing a unfavorable relationship between volatility and liquidity. The sharp rise in volatility and its subsequent decline therefore assist clarify the noticed patterns within the liquidity measures.

Worth Volatility Spiked in March 2023

Supply: Writer’s calculations, based mostly on information from BrokerTec.
Notes: The chart plots five-day transferring averages of worth volatility for the on-the-run two-, five-, and ten-year notes within the interdealer market from September 1, 2019 to September 30, 2023. Worth volatility is calculated for every day by summing squared one-minute returns (log modifications in midpoint costs) from 7 a.m. to five p.m., annualizing by multiplying by 252, after which taking the sq. root. It’s reported in %.

Liquidity Continues to Observe Volatility

As in “How Liquid Has the Treasury Market Been in 2022?,” we assess whether or not liquidity has been uncommon given the extent of volatility by inspecting scatter plots of worth impression in opposition to volatility. The chart beneath gives such a plot for the five-year notice, exhibiting that the 2023 observations (in grey) fall consistent with the historic relationship. That’s, the affiliation between liquidity and volatility in 2023 has been in keeping with the previous affiliation between these two variables. That is true for the ten-year notice as nicely, whereas for the two-year notice the proof factors to considerably higher-than-expected worth impression given the volatility (as additionally occurred in fall 2008, March 2020, and 2022).

Liquidity in Line with Historic Relationship with Volatility

Supply: Writer’s calculations, based mostly on information from BrokerTec.
Notes: This chart plots worth impression in opposition to worth volatility by week for the on-the-run five-year notice from January 1, 2005, to September 30, 2023. The weekly measures for each collection are averages of the each day measures plotted within the previous two charts. Fall 2008 factors are for September 21, 2008–January 3, 2009, March 2020 factors are for March 1, 2020–March 28, 2020, 2022 factors are for January 1, 2022–December 31, 2022, and 2023 factors are for January 1, 2023–September 30, 2023.

The previous evaluation is predicated on realized worth volatility—that’s, on how a lot costs are literally altering. We repeated the evaluation with implied (or anticipated) rate of interest volatility, as measured by the ICE BofAML MOVE Index, and located comparable outcomes for 2023. That’s, liquidity for the five- and ten-year notes is consistent with the historic relationship between liquidity and anticipated volatility, whereas liquidity is considerably worse for the two-year notice.

Continued Vigilance

Whereas Treasury market liquidity has not been unusually poor given the extent of rate of interest volatility, continued vigilance by policymakers and market members is suitable. The market’s capability to easily deal with giant buying and selling flows has been of concern since March 2020, as mentioned in this Brookings paper. Furthermore, new empirical work exhibits how constraints on intermediation capability can exacerbate illiquidity. Cautious monitoring of Treasury market liquidity, and continued efforts to boost the market’s resilience, are warranted.

Photo: portrait of Michael Fleming

Michael J. Fleming is the top of Capital Markets Research within the Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York’s Analysis and Statistics Group. 

Methods to cite this put up:
Michael Fleming, “How Has Treasury Market Liquidity Developed in 2023?,” Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York Liberty Avenue Economics, October 17, 2023, https://libertystreeteconomics.newyorkfed.org/2023/10/how-has-treasury-market-liquidity-evolved-in-2023/.


Disclaimer
The views expressed on this put up are these of the creator(s) and don’t essentially mirror the place of the Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York or the Federal Reserve System. Any errors or omissions are the accountability of the creator(s).

[ad_2]

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here